Five thousand years of history have molded many political systems/types of governing (monarchy, city-state, dictatorship, etc.). In Classical Greece as early as 594 BC, there was already a sense of democracy (in Athens) and this paved way for the democracy that is being practiced today.
Philosophy, Science and Mathematics
Greeks developed philosophy during the Classical period as a way of understanding the world around them, without resorting to religion, myth, or magic by making make inferences from observations. Early Greek philosophers were also scientists who observed and studied the known world, the earth, seas, and mountains here below, and the solar system, planetary motion, and astral phenomena, above. The three most distinguished philosophers of ancient Greece were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and also a scientist (born 384 BC). His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing ethics, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today.